You have probably read more than once that omega-6 fatty acids are inflammatory. I'm sure I've been guilty of saying something to that effect myself. The truth is, it's an over simplification.
Both omega-3 and omega-6 are essential fatty acids. They are called essential because the horse's body can't manufacture them. They are also called essential because the body needs them - both of them.
The first step in the metabolism of omega-6 linoleic acid is the production of arachidonic acid. Counterparts on the omega-3 side are DHA and EPA. This is a multistep process but the first enzyme for these conversions is the same for both omega-3 and omega-6. I'll come back to that in a minute.
After the production of arachidonic acid, eicosanoids are generated. These are prostaglandins, leukotrienes and a few other minor classes. These are the lipochemicals with active inflammatory effects while those generated from omega-3 have anti-inflammatory actions. However, while it is true that there is some evidence diets with high omega-6 are associated with higher arachidonic acid levels, that does not immediately translate into higher active inflammatory eicosanoids.
Inflammation doesn't just happen. It has to be triggered by something - an infection, injury, toxin, cell death. Just having more omega-6 and arachidonic acid around won't do it. Where the level of omega-6 versus -3 has its major effect is in the production of omega-3 counter regulatory eicosanoids. When there is an abundance of omega-6 they can block omega-3 access to that first enzyme needed to start conversion of these fats into active compounds.
The omega-6 series also does more than cause inflammation. Eicosanoids from omega-6 linoleic acid have some important beneficial actions. Aspirin can cause an asthma attack because it blocks production of the omega-6 prostaglandin E2, which is a bronchodilator. Aspirin allows the bronchoconstricting prostaglandins to take over.
Throughout the bodily functions, normal is a balance between chemical mediators, and prostaglandin eicosanoids are involved in many reactions. In the kidneys, they play a role in urine production and electrolyte balance. They are involved in noradrenalin modulation and the sensitivity of sensory nerves. Intraocular pressure, pituitary hormone release and insulin action are influenced.
The leukotrienes derived from omega-6 are primarily mediators of inflammation but inflammation is a necessary reaction for defense from invaders, cleaning up dead or damaged tissue, and healing.
They are also involved in stimulating the innate immune system response to bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Lipoxins derived from omega-6 are structurally similar to leukotrienes, but they are involved in the resolution of inflammation rather than promoting it. They work together with omega-3 derived resolvins, protectins and maresins to stop the inflammatory process and restore homeostasis.
When a nutrient is essential, there is no good or bad. It's balance that is important.
Uckele Health & Nutrition, maker of CocoSoya®, offers supplements featuring essential fatty acids.
CocoOmega Oil and Granular is a non-GMO and soy free formula that supplies fatty acids in the ideal ratio that mimics the ratio of 4 to 1 Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acids found in fresh forages. Promotes a glossy, healthy coat, and supports skin, hooves and joint function by retaining moisture in the cells and tissues to maintain healthy hydration. Highly concentrated levels of Omega-3 fatty acids enriched with antioxidants also provides EPA and DHA to support brain and nervous system function.
CocoSoya Oil and Granular provides a healthy fat and cool-calorie energy source to build and maintain healthy weight while supporting healthy blood sugar levels. Promotes a healthy skin, a glossy coat and excellent body condition. Helps to keep hooves nourished and moisturized by supporting the waterproof barrier.
Permission to reprint this article is granted, provided credit is given to Uckele Health & Nutrition, who appreciates being notified of publication.
About Dr. Kellon
Dr. Eleanor Kellon, staff veterinary specialist for Uckele Health & Nutrition, is an established authority in the field of equine nutrition for over 30 years, and a founding member and leader of the Equine Cushings and Insulin Resistance (ECIR) group, whose mission is to improve the welfare of horses with metabolic disorders via integration of research and real-life clinical experience. Prevention of laminitis is the ultimate goal. www.ecirhorse.org
Uckele Health & Nutrition, maker of CocoSoya, is an innovation-driven health company committed to making people and their animals healthier. On the leading edge of nutritional science and technology for over 50 years, Uckele formulates and manufactures a full spectrum of quality nutritional supplements incorporating the latest nutritional advances. www.uckele.com.
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